Finance is an area of business studies that studies the economic system, money supply, banking systems, individual patrimony, capital structure, and the allocation of funds. It also studies the management of monetary policy, interest rates, inflation, taxes, and the business economy. The scope of finance includes all aspects of a business from the micro level to the macro or national level. The study of finance affects all industries from manufacturing to banking. Finance is used by businesses large and small to make business decisions and allocate resources.
The study of business finance is a crucial part in every business decision as it determines how much the company can invest, when to invest, how to manage its resources, what risk they are exposed to, and how to keep the resources it owns to maximize productivity and profit. As mentioned before, it supervises the management of resources. In fact, finance effects all areas of a business from the micro level to the macro or national level. Some of the areas of business finance that are important include asset allocation, working capital management, corporate lending, investment strategy, venture capital, and financing. Other areas of business finance that are critical to a company’s success include financial counseling, transactional funding, merchant cash loans, corporate credit, corporate finance, and non-recourse capital.
Asset allocation is the process of spreading risk between various assets so as to reduce the probability of a particular asset decreasing in value. Asset allocation is especially important for firms in competitive sectors as well as those facing different risks. One should always try to diversify their assets so as to avoid too much reliance on just a few. The objective is to ensure that the firm has a long-term positive rate of return on its fixed assets.
Working capital management is an aspect of business finance that concerns itself with short-term funding requirements. It is crucial for every business since most of its activities such as purchasing raw materials, manufacturing finished goods, advertising and selling its products, and financing operations take place with funds that have to be available at some point of time. This is why working capital management ensures that the flow of funds is regularized and does not get disrupted due to lack of availability of raw materials, payment issues, or poor credit terms. All banks and other financial institutions provide various methods of working capital management. However, each method is designed for a particular type of business and thus, one has to choose the one that is most appropriate to his/her firm. A good working capital management strategy should be able to improve cash flow by minimising operational costs, ensuring reliability of financial transactions by monitoring customer accounts, reducing the risk of delinquency of loans, and generating higher profits.
Business finance is also involved in financial management of buying assets and property for business use. The objective is to make sure that capital invested in business ventures generates positive ROI (return on investment). In fact, it is one of the most significant aspects of business finance since it aims at ensuring that all the financial resources produced by the business are used to solve problems and generate new opportunities rather than simply be wasted. Good financial management also ensures that no financial penalties are attached to business loans.
As business is a long-term process, there is a need for long-term investment in order to secure the main goal, which is profits. A sound financial management system takes this into account by ensuring that a firm continues to have access to sufficient resources even after achieving its set goals. However, this can only be achieved if the financial management system is well designed and implemented.
Financial management focuses on two types of strategies: short term and medium term. Short term business finance seeks to achieve the goals within the shortest possible time period. Medium term finance is aimed at ensuring that a firm achieves its long term finance objectives over a long term period. Most banks offer a range of financing options in both of these strategies, with some offering specialised finance at specific times of the year such as Christmas or Valentine’s Day.
Business finance generally falls into three categories: fixed capital requirement, variable capital requirement, and initial investment. Fixed capital requirement refers to the total amount of capital that a firm requires up-front before it starts operations. This can be either required for start-up costs or to expand existing operations. Variable capital requirement is used to address unexpected increases in total cost of production; it typically requires funding to hire and equip additional employees and machinery, buy raw materials and supplies, pay for labour and operate the company’s machinery and plants.